Indice

INTRODUZIONE: MOTIVI ED OBIETTIVI DELLA TESI DI LAUREA……............................................................................................................... pg. 1

1. CAPITOLO «LA CANTINA: antica quanto l’umanità»

Premessa……………………………………………………………………….............................................................................................................................................................. pg. 6

1.1 La Preistoria:agli albori delle prime strutture vinicole?…………………................................................................................................................ pg. 7

1.2 L’età del Ferro: l’impiantistica vinicola si evolve…………………………...................................................................................................................... pg. 16

1.3 Leinfluenze culturali e vitivinicole pre-romane nella Valle Padana…..................................................................................................... pg. 24

1.4 Le cantine vinicole nel periodo della dominazione romana……………........................................................................................................ pg. 27

1.4.1 La villa romana di Settefinestre: il riferimento a “modello”……………........................................................................................................ pg. 30

1.4.2 La villa romana di Marina di Lugugnana (VE) e l’impianto vinicolo…….............................................................................................. pg. 39

1.4.3 L’insediamento di S. Pietro in Cariano, località Ambrosan (VR)………................................................................................................... pg. 44

1.4.4 L’insediamento di S. Pietro in Cariano, località Mattonara (VR)………................................................................................................... pg. 46

1.4.5 Gli insediamenti vicentini: Sarego-Ca’Quinta e Isola vicentina-località Antoniazzi…………………………………………………....... pg. 46

1.4.6 Tipologie di anfore per la conservazione e il trasporto del vino…………................................................................................................ pg. 47

1.5 Il Medioevo……………………………………………………………………...................................................................................................................................................... pg. 49

1.5.1 Le cantine dell’abbazia di S. Bona di Vidor, Vidor (TV)…………………............................................................................................................. pg. 55

1.5.2 La cantina dell’abbazia di S. Maria di Follina, Follina (TV)……………........................................................................................................... pg. 60

1.5.3 L’antica cantina del Castello di San Salvatore, Susegana (TV)………....................................................................................................... pg. 63

1.5.4 Il contrappeso di pietra del torchio dell’abbazia di Maguzzano (BS)….............................................................................................. pg. 65

1.5.5 I luoghi di vinificazione dell’Ospedale della Misericordia di Prato……................................................................................................ pg. 66

1.5.6 Le tipologie dei più frequenti recipienti vinari…………………………................................................................................................................... pg. 67

1.6 Il Quattro-Cinque-Seicento…………………………………………………...................................................................................................................................... pg. 67

1.6.1 I «luoghi da fare i vini» della villa Barbaro, Maser (TV)………………….............................................................................................................. pg. 71

1.6.2 Le cantine (Bressa) di villa Guillion-Mangilli, Pederiva (TV)……………....................................................................................................... pg. 75

1.7 Il Settecento…………………………………………………………………...................................................................................................................................................... pg. 79

1.7.1 La Cascina rurale della villa Spineda-Gasparini, Venegazzù (TV)……..................................................................................................... pg. 81

1.8 L’Ottocento…………………………………………………………………….................................................................................................................................................... pg. 85

1.8.1 Le cantine ottocentesche dell’Azienda Agricola di Maser, Maser (TV)…............................................................................................ pg. 87

1.9 Al passaggio del Novecento………………………………………………........................................................................................................................................ pg. 90

1.9.1 Le costruzioni enotecniche dell’Az. Agr. Conte Collalto, Susegana (TV)……...................................................................................... pg. 90

NOTE………………………………………………………………………………............................................................................................................................................................. pg. 95

2. CAPITOLO «LE COSTRUZIONI ENOTECNICHE»

2.1.1 Le prescrizioni enotecniche secondo gli antichi……………………..................................................................................................................... pg. 98

2.1.2 Generalità sulle costruzioni enotecniche…………………………….......................................................................................................................... pg. 102

2.1.3 Sviluppo delle costruzioni……………………………………………......................................................................................................................................... pg. 105

2.1.4 Ubicazione topografica di una cantina vinicola…………………….................................................................................................................... pg. 106

2.1.5 Forma e orientamento dell’impianto vitivinicolo……………………................................................................................................................. pg. 109

2.1.6 Disposizioni interne dei locali………………………………………...................................................................................................................................... pg. 110

2.1.7 Influenza delle condizioni esterne……………………………………............................................................................................................................... pg. 112

2.2 Particolari costruttivi delle cantine………………………………………….......................................................................................................................... pg. 112

2.2.1 Fondazioni e doppi muri………………………………………………....................................................................................................................................... pg. 112

2.2.2 La costruzione dei pavimenti………………………………………….................................................................................................................................. pg. 116

2.2.3 Le scale…………………………………………………………………....................................................................................................................................................... pg. 118

2.2.4 Le volte…………………………………………………………………........................................................................................................................................................ pg. 119

2.2.5 I solai e gli impalcati…………………………………………………............................................................................................................................................ pg. 122

2.2.6 Le coperture……………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................................. pg. 125

2.2.7 Porte e finestre………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................................. pg. 128

2.2.8 Bocche di lupo e spiragli……………………………………………........................................................................................................................................ pg. 130

2.2.9 Il trasporto verticale delle botti: ascensori, elevatori e saliscendi.................................................................................................. pg. 131

2.2.10 Pozzi, cisterne, serbatoi d’acqua e loro uso………………………..................................................................................................................... pg. 132

2.3 Elementi di bonificazione delle cantine…………………………………….................................................................................................................. pg. 134

2.3.1 Illuminazione naturale ed artificiale…………………………………........................................................................................................................... pg. 134

2.3.2 Il calore nelle cantine e la sua influenza……………………………....................................................................................................................... pg. 136

2.3.3 La ventilazione: effetti sulla temperatura e sull’umidità……………..................................................................................................... pg. 138

2.4 I reparti delle costruzioni enotecniche……………………………………................................................................................................................... pg. 144

2.4.1 La capanna vinicola…………………………………………………........................................................................................................................................... pg. 144

2.4.2 La tinaia………………………………………………………………..................................................................................................................................................... pg. 146

2.4.3 La cantina di elaborazione……………………………………………................................................................................................................................. pg. 152

2.4.4 La cantina di conservazione…………………………………………................................................................................................................................ pg. 156

2.4.5 Conversione di un locale in cantina…………………………………........................................................................................................................ pg. 163

2.4.6 Le bottiglierie e le sue varianti………………………………………............................................................................................................................... pg.165

2.4.7 Fabbricati d’appendice degli enopoli………………………………....................................................................................................................... pg. 167

2.4.8 Alcuni esempi di cantine vinicole……………………………………......................................................................................................................... pg. 169

NOTE……………………………………………………………………………….................................................................................................................................................... pg. 177

3. CAPITOLO «LE CANTINE VINICOLE DEL NOVECENTO»

3.1 Generalità sulle cantine moderne: i reparti vinicoli e i macchinari…….………............................................................................... pg. 180

3.2 Gli elementi costruttivi di una cantina……………………………………................................................................................................................. pg. 187

3.2.1 Fondamenta, pavimenti e pareti………………………………………........................................................................................................................ pg. 188

3.2.2 Le corsie di servizio………………………………………………….…..................................................................................................................................... pg. 189

3.2.3 Scale, passerelle e ballatoi……………………………………………................................................................................................................................ pg. 189

3.3 Gli impianti di servizio alla cantina vinicola………………………………............................................................................................................ pg. 189

3.3.1 L’impianto elettrico………………………………………………………................................................................................................................................... pg. 189

3.3.2 L’impianto fognario……………………………………………………….................................................................................................................................. pg. 190

3.3.3 L’impianto di aerazione…………………………………………………............................................................................................................................... pg. 191

3.4 Le esigenze di ampliamento produttivo nelle cantine……………………............................................................................................... pg. 191

3.5 Alcuni modelli di cantine vinicole………………………………………….................................................................................................................... pg. 193

4. CAPITOLO «QUATTORDICI AZIENDE DELLA MARCA»

Azienda Agricola Abbazia di Vidor del Conte da Sacco, Vidor (TV)…………....................................................................................... pg. 203

Az. Agr. Castello di Roncade del Barone Ciani Bassetti, Roncade (TV)……...................................................................................... pg. 211

Azienda Agricola Villa di Maser dei Conti Luling Buschetti, Maser (TV)………................................................................................ pg. 217

Azienda Agricola Rechsteiner dei Baroni Stepski Doliwa, Piavon (TV)………................................................................................... pg. 226

Az. Agr. Villa Ronche del Conte Brandino Brandolini d’Adda, Cordignano (TV)……................................................................. pg. 232

Azienda Agricola Bianchi de Kunkler dei Baroni Kunkler, Mogliano Veneto….......................................................................... pg. 236

Cantine Giuseppe Geronazzo & C., Solighetto (TV)…………………………........................................................................................................ pg. 240

Azienda Agricola Collalto Giustiniani Cecilia, Monastier (TV)…………………........................................................................................... pg. 245

Azienda Agricola Conte Loredan-Gasparini, Venegazzù (TV)………………............................................................................................. pg. 249

Tenuta Bonotto delle Tezze, Tezze di Piave (TV)……………………………............................................................................................................ pg. 255

Azienda Agricola Cantine Giol, San Polo di Piave (TV)……………………….................................................................................................... pg. 263

Cantina Adamo Canel s.a.s, Col San Martino (TV)…………………………........................................................................................................... pg. 272

Azienda Agricola Conte Collalto, Susegana (TV)…………………………….......................................................................................................... pg. 276

Azienda Vinicola Gregoletto Luigi, Premaor di Miane (TV)……………………............................................................................................ pg. 282

5. CAPITOLO «LE CANTINE VINICOLE FRANCESI»

5.1 L’esperienza del Bordolese:…………………………………………………........................................................................................................................ pg. 288

5.1.1 Evoluzione storica della viticoltura Bordolese…………………………....................................................................................................... pg. 289

5.1.2 Lo “château” viticolo………………………………………………….…............................................................................................................................... pg. 296

5.1.3 Origine ed evoluzione storica dellochâteau viticolo…………………….............................................................................................. pg. 297

5.1.4 Cuviers echai bordolesi…………………………………………………............................................................................................................................ pg. 311

NOTE………………………………………………………………………………............................................................................................................................................. pg. 315

5.2 L’esperienza dellaChampagne:……………………………………………................................................................................................................... pg. 316

5.2.1 Brevi note tecniche, geografiche, geo-pedologiche, climatiche, botaniche e legislative dellaChampagne. pg. 317

5.2.2 Evoluzione storica della viticoltura dellaChampagne…………………............................................................................................ pg. 320

5.2.3 L’architettura vinicola dellaChampagne: «vendangeoirs, caves et crayères»……………………………………………………. pg 325

6. CAPITOLO «LE RIFLESSIONI PROGETTUALI»

6.1 Linee programmatiche generali e proposte progettuali……………..……........................................................................................ pg. 337

6.1.1 Il Piano Regolatore delle Città del Vino.................................................................................................................................................... pg. 338

6.1.2 Il Documento del Piano Regolatore delle Città del Vino (allegato)…..…............................................................................. pg. 340

6.2 Il caso di Maser (TV)………………………………………………………….............................................................................................................................. pg. 341

6.3 Il caso di Tezze di Piave (TV)………………………………………………........................................................................................................................ pg. 352

6.4 Il caso di Vidor (TV)…………………………………………………………............................................................................................................................... pg 361

7. INDICE DELLE TAVOLE………………………………………………..................................................................................................................................... pg. 368

8. Bibliografia………………………………………………………….……........................................................................................................................................... pg. 370